Category Archives: Gunfights and Gunbattles

Breaking Contact – Our Objective

#mindsetmonday

An interesting aspect of reading Use of Force reports by different POlice departments is seeing their varying views about how to interpret the incidents. While the LAPD provides a very detailed analysis of officer marksmanship for each incident, the NYPD has a quite different view, at least in its public releases.

“Objective Completion Rate

The [NYPD] does not calculate ‘hit percentage’ when describing ID-AC [Intentional Discharge – Adversarial Conflict] incidents. The NYPD uses an ‘objective completion rate’ per incident to determine the effectiveness of police firearms discharges. When a uniformed member properly and lawfully perceives a threat severe enough to require the use of a firearm and fires properly and lawfully at a specific threat, the most relevant measure of success is whether the member ultimately stops the threat. This is the objective completion rate. Regardless of the number of shots that strike a particular subject, the objective is considered completed when the actions of the subject that threaten imminent serious physical injury or death are stopped by a member’s use of deadly physical force, i.e., a subject stops their threatening actions after being shot.

In 2019, uniformed members of the service successfully stopped the threat by discharging their weapons in 24 of the 25 ID-AC incidents, with at least one subject shot in each of those 24 incidents, for an objective completion rate of 96%. The objective completion rate is used for statistical and informational purposes, and is not a factor considered in the investigation of the individual incidents.”

NYPD Objective Completion Rate

In other words, when the officer actually hit the “subject/perpetrator/assailant” with at least one round, the objective of stopping the Violent Criminal Actor’s action was achieved.

NYPD Intentional Discharge – Adversarial Conflict

Unlike the LAPD analysis, NYPD data doesn’t provide us information that’s useful in terms of developing physical skills. However, it does provide us with an interesting philosophical viewpoint on what’s important in Defensive Gun Uses. Our ‘objective’ as Private Citizens is exactly the same as for officers of the NYPD, whether we call it “stopping the threat,” “breaking contact,” or use some other term.

The initial post about Breaking Contact (Part I) is located here:

https://tacticalprofessor.wordpress.com/2021/04/10/breaking-contact-part-i/

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The Importance of the First Shot

#fridayfundamentals

Some principles are just as fundamental as is technique. One of the unintentional themes of the 2021 Tactical Conference was the importance of the first shot. One class even had that as its title. Several other instructors touched on it as part of their classes and presentations.

Rolf Penzel and Mike Treat titled their class Making the First Shot Count.

John Murphy made the comment “It’s not a ‘one shot drill,’ it’s a ‘first shot drill’” in his class.

During his presentation Secrets of Highly Successful Gunfighters, Darryl Bolke stated “training efficiency means using the sights.”

Chuck Haggard used the term “Target Picture” to illustrate the concept of placing the sight picture on the part of the target we want to hit initially.

In his AIWB Skills class, John Daub instructed his clients to “think about where you want the muzzle to end up” at the conclusion of the draw.

Scott Jedlinski’s comment “The original 1911 sights were suggestions” in his class was a humorous illustration of why point shooting was so common in days gone by. Tom Givens has also written about the dismal quality of factory sights on pistols and revolvers of yesteryear and how that affected technique training of a century ago.

One of trends that is apparent in the Categorical Use of Force Reports by the LAPD is how often one or two shots solve the problem. This is true through the entire database of over 1,000 incidents, not just the off-duty incidents chronicled in my first book about LAPD Shootouts. LAPD’s emphasis on marksmanship and frequent scored qualification is no doubt responsible for this difference from other large departments that have minimal standards.

In a gunfight, the shooter who first scores a hit above the diaphragm of his opponent is the one who seizes the initiative in the incident. Making a good hit with the FIRST SHOT fired is key to seizing the initiative and then retaining it until the incident is over. No one’s performance improves after he gets shot in a vital area.

In terms of operationalizing this principle, the fact that most common autoloaders don’t have a second strike capability during dry practice becomes irrelevant to the fundamental of making a good hit with the first shot. Your dry practice should mostly focus on the first shot anyway.

During live fire, the majority of our practice should be ‘first shot drills.’ Do a little recoil management practice but don’t overestimate its priority relative to the first shot in the real world. As John Farnam put it, “Our desired range product is victory.”

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Duel at the Dumbster (Part VI)

Something similar to the Snow Murders happened several years ago. I call it Duel at the Dumbster and wrote a series of articles about it.

Part I https://tacticalprofessor.wordpress.com/2018/09/21/lessons-from-the-duel-at-the-dumpster-part-i/

Part II https://tacticalprofessor.wordpress.com/2018/09/22/lessons-from-the-duel-at-the-dumpster-part-ii/

Part III https://tacticalprofessor.wordpress.com/2018/09/28/lessons-from-the-duel-at-the-dumpster-part-iii/

The Snow Murders prompted me to find out what had transpired for the shooters in the meantime. Whoops, Covid affected the father and son also. Their trial has been delayed indefinitely.

https://www.star-telegram.com/news/local/crime/article242568611.html

The Dumbster Fire video was previously available on LiveLeak, entitled Two Fat Hillbillies Kill [Man whose mouth writes checks that his ass can’t cash] Over Garbage but it doesn’t seem to be available there anymore. Fortunately, the star-telegram update article also includes the full video of that foolish confrontation and killing.

Unlike Jeffrey Spaide, who committed suicide after killing the Goys, no doubt the legal fees for the Millers are continuing to run. Even if they are found Not Guilty, they will be in hock to their lawyers for the rest of their lives.

The year after the Duel, I made a visit to the site as part of my trip to the SHOT Show.

Duel (Part IV)

https://tacticalprofessor.wordpress.com/2019/01/28/the-tactical-professors-shot-show-odyssey-part-ii-site-visit-to-the-duel-at-the-dumbster/

Duel (Part V)

https://tacticalprofessor.wordpress.com/2019/01/29/the-tactical-professors-shot-show-odyssey-part-iii-site-visit-to-the-duel-at-the-dumbster-continued/

 “There are men in this world,” [Don Corleone] said, “who go about demanding to be killed. You must have noticed them. They quarrel in gambling games, they jump out of their automobiles in a rage if someone so much as scratches their fender, they humiliate and bully people whose capabilities they do not know. I have seen a man, a fool, deliberately infuriate a group of dangerous men, and he himself without any resources. These are people who wander through the world shouting, ‘Kill me. Kill me.’ And there is always somebody ready to oblige them.”

–Mario Puzo in The Godfather

Revolver Operator Course – The Pence Drill

We had a very successful Revolver Operator Course this past weekend. One of the two keystone drills of the course is the Pence Drill, named in honor of Officer Skip Pence of the California Highway Patrol. Officer Pence was murdered in the Newhall Incident in 1970. Historical gunfights can be the basis for an important part of training classes. Officer Pence’s sacrifice is uniquely appropriate for inclusion in a class about running the wheelgun.

The Learning Objectives of the Pence Drill are smooth trigger manipulation, calm ammo management, and effective Time Management under fire.

RIP Officer Skip Pence

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In Memoriam and Lessons to be Learned

Twenty-two years ago today, two Border Patrol Agents, Susan Lynn Rodriguez and Ricardo Guillermo Salinas, were murdered in a shootout with a dangerous criminal who was on the run.

BP Agents Rodriguez and Salinas

https://apnews.com/f7fa562c42655a5874bf491be86adff7

The criminal had previously murdered two people and wounded another. He fled the crime scene. Local deputies gave chase and asked the Border Patrol for assistance.

Agents Rodriguez and Salinas set up a perimeter around where the criminal was suspected to be hiding. As they walked back to their vehicle, the suspect emerged from a cornfield and began firing with an AK rifle on them and the other law enforcement officers on the scene. During the ensuing gun battle, Agents Rodriguez and Salinas were killed.

Lessons to be Learned:

The criminal had gone to the home of the initial victims in search of a former girlfriend. When sheltering someone who has been a victim of Domestic Violence, it’s wise to increase our level of Awareness and Defense Condition.

Rifles are devastating weapons in pistol distance gunfights. Although there has been a lot of discounting the efficacy of .22 rifles as deadly weapons lately, this is ill-advised and foolish. Regardless of caliber, rifles are dangerous weapons.

RIP Agents Rodriguez and Salinas.

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Law Officers Killed FBI Report (2019)

As reported on The Tactical Wire https://www.thetacticalwire.com/releases/78c296b0-c471-40f8-a6d0-0627f774292f today, the FBI has released the 2019 Law Enforcement Officers Killed in 2019 report. This is a section of the annual Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted Report. https://ucr.fbi.gov/leoka/2019 The Assaulted section is due to be released in the fall of this year.

The report is filled with statistical data about how Law Officers are killed in the Line of Duty, both intentionally (Feloniously) and accidentally. However, the most valuable part of the report is what is called Summaries: Officers Feloniously Killed. https://ucr.fbi.gov/leoka/2019/resource-pages/summaries-officers-feloniously-killed The statistical data, while slightly interesting, provides no information about the circumstances that led to the murder of the officers. Reading about the circumstances is what provides insight into how we might avoid a similar Negative Outcome. The off-duty incidents should be particularly of interest to Private Citizens, especially those who believe that Intervention in the affairs of others is an appropriate action.

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The Newhall Incident anniversary

At 11:55 p.m., April 5, 1970, two Officers of the California Highway Patrol stopped a car for brandishing a firearm at another vehicle hours earlier. Minutes later, they and two other CHP Officers would lie dead in the parking lot of the restaurant where the stop took place. Their murderers would escape into the night, virtually unscathed in the gunfire.

https://tacticalprofessor.wordpress.com/2018/04/06/the-newhall-incident-april-1970/

RIP, Officers Frago, Gore, Alleyn, and Pence.

What’s the likelihood that something unpleasant is going to happen?

Stupid people, stupid places, stupid things. This is a perfect example.

Going to a birthday memorial service (lasting until 12:30 am) to honor the memory of a person who was killed while conducting a carjacking. That fulfills all of the criteria. What’s the likelihood that something unpleasant is going to happen?

13 People Shot At Chicago House Party Honoring A Man Killed [while carjacking] In April

Note also that there were three different shooting scenes. 1) The initial shooting in the home, 2) one of the shooters outside waiting for people to come out and randomly shooting at them, and 3) another shooter firing at a vehicle going down the street.

‘We can’t normalize this kind of behavior,’ [Chicargo Mayor] Lightfoot said.

Roger that transmission.

Continue reading →

The Paseo Massacre – 1948

The Paseo Massacre took place September 20, 1948 in Kansas City Missouri. Its name comes from the location, Paseo Boulevard and 14th Street. Three POlice officers were killed that day by two offenders. A week later, another officer subsequently died of his wounds. An innocent bystander was also killed by POlice gunfire during the shootout. One offender was killed by POlice gunfire that day and the other was executed in the gas chamber 15 months later.

Paseo victim officers

Sequence of events

  • Saturday, September 18, 1948 – William Bell is arrested at 1334 Paseo Boulevard in Kansas City, Missouri by POlice officers Charles Neaves and Sandy Washington for disturbing the peace. Bell is required to post a Peace Bond.
  • Monday, September 20 – the same officers are dispatched to the same address for a disturbance call.
  • They find a drinking party in progress, which was a violation of Bell’s Peace Bond. Neaves and Washington inform Bell that they are taking him into custody.
  • Bell’s brother, George, protests the arrest and is also placed under arrest.
  • Making a pretext, George Bell produces a shotgun and shoots Officer Neaves in the stomach.
  • William Bell then takes the shotgun from his brother and shoots Officer Washington as he tries to escape. Officer Washington is killed by the shotgun blast.
  • William Bell then takes Officer Neaves’ revolver and executes him with it by shooting him behind the ear.
  • Neighbors call the POlice requesting additional Officers.
  • William Bell exits the apartment and takes a shotgun from the POlice vehicle Officers Neaves and Washington arrived in. He establishes an ambush position outside the building for responding Officers
  • George Bell and his girlfriend flee the apartment and go to his apartment.
  • Officers Charles Perrine and Officer Langley arrive and immediately come under fire from Bell.
  • Officer Perrine is killed and Officer Langley takes cover.
  • Sergeant William Wells and Officer Keiffer Burris arrive. They also come under fire from William Bell, firing the shotgun, and are both wounded.
  • Officers Earl Scott and Rodney Knight arrive in a fourth POlice car and open fire on William Bell.
  • Bell is killed by the gunfire. He dies with Neaves’ revolver in hand and falls on top of the shotgun he took from the POlice vehicle.
  • Edwin Burton Warren, an innocent bystander, is shot and killed by Officer William Smith as he attempts to escape the shootout by running north on Paseo Boulevard.
  • George Bell is later arrested at his apartment. Bell admits that he had served part of a 10 year sentence for killing a soldier while he served in Algeria during World War II.
  • Seven days later, Sergeant Wells, who had seven wounds and been shot through the right lung, dies of pneumonia in hospital.
  • December 8, 1948, George Bell is tried and found guilty of Officer Neaves’ Murder by a Circuit Court Jury. The jury deliberates only a little over four hours. Bell is sentenced to die in the gas chamber.
  • Bell’s execution is set for March 25, 1949.
  • His execution is stayed pending an appeal to the Missouri Supreme Court. After his appeal is rejected, George Bell is executed on December 2, 1949 at 12:01 a.m. at the Missouri State Penitentiary.
  • Officer Burris survives his wounds. He is later promoted to Sergeant. Unfortunately, he dies 12 years later in a training accident.

The Kansas City POlice Memorial page is located here. https://www.kcpolicememorial.com/pages/paseomass/

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Serious Mistakes Gunowners Make http://seriousgunownermistakes.com

Independence Day

Independence Day is the holiday when we in the United States of America celebrate our Declaration of Independence from Great Britain in 1776. It is probably the most significant date in our great Nation’s history. I never use the colloquial term ‘Fourth of July’ because I think it dilutes the memory of what the holiday’s meaning is.

We should keep in mind that July 4th is not the day that the Declaration of Independence was signed nor is it the date that the Founding Fathers declared our independence from the British Empire. Rather, it was the date that The Continental Congress approved the final wording of the declaration that had been decided two days earlier on July 2nd. https://www.constitutionfacts.com/us-declaration-of-independence/fourth-of-july/

Something else we should keep in mind is that Independence Day does not commemorate the start of the American Revolution. That was 14 months earlier in April of 1775 when ‘the shot heard around the world’ was fired in Lexington, Massachusetts on the 19th of April. The Battle of Lexington and two days later in Concord were the start of the American Revolution. The Battles were the result of the British Army trying to seize and destroy the Colonists’ cache of arms and ammunition. Whenever politicians try to remove weapons from the populace, it means they have something unpleasant in mind.

shot-heard

In political science, there still is no universally accepted definition of ‘government.’ There are indicators, though; one of the principal criteria being the ‘monopoly of force.’ In the Gettysburg Address, Abraham Lincoln said the object of the Civil War was “that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.“ Using the criterion of the monopoly of force, when the people do not possess arms, we might have government OF the people and perhaps, in a benevolent autocracy, FOR the people but certainly not BY the people.

I will be shooting with friends today and I hope you will be, too. The firearm I’ll be using to commemorate the date is a Marlin Model 60, a modern day equivalent of the simple firearms many of the colonists began our Revolution with.

Marlin 60 right side

A sidenote about today’s post:

Vet (verify) your sources.

As part of this blog post, I wanted to include the reference to “government of the people, by the people, for the people,” from Lincoln’s Gettysburg address. I think the phrase has strong implications in the arena of the controversy of about the Right of the people to keep and bear arms.

The question has arisen as to whether Lincoln actually coined the phrase himself or whether he had another inspiration. Many generally reputable sources claim that Lincoln actually was inspired by the 1397 General Prologue to the Wycliffe1382 Bible translation from Latin to Middle English. Even the Washington Post published this theory in 2017.

government of the people by the people for the people WaPo

A question was whether the original phrasing was ‘The Bible is for the government…’ or ‘This Bible is for the government…’ I wanted to be sure of the wording I was going to quote so I did a little research. However, in looking through several different sources of the General Prologue, I was unable to find anything remotely resembling the phrase. More research uncovered the fact that this has puzzled numerous people and no one is able to find the phrase in any reading of the General Prologue.

So the idea that Lincoln lifted the phrase from somewhere else seems to be pure poppycock that has been repeated for decades without actually being verified. In the days before we had a free and near instantaneous repository of most of the knowledge of human history, this might be forgivable. Now, there’s just no excuse for it.

Don’t be a parrot. Czech your sources. It doesn’t take long and it’s really not that difficult.

FTC note: I bought the Marlin 60 with my own money and receive no compensation for mentioning it.